Our test of Civilization-1 (where is civilization)
Humanity How did the gatherer reach the current shape of the global civilization from small communities?
Where has the torch of civilization moved from hand to hands?
In our country, the discussions of reaching civilization remain up to date in every semester.
The cost of living away from the principles that the Modern world has put forth in the name of civilization is affecting many areas ranging from health, education, economy, industry, artistic activities to street behaviour…
East or west, is there any aspect of civilization?
We see that the world map of civilization is in motion throughout the ages.
In order to advance, explore and understand what is happening around us, many civilizations have signed many different kinds of innovation, thanks to a lot of scientists and thinkers, either needs or curiosity and imagination.
The light of civilization has sometimes changed hands on the map of the world, and occasionally in different geographies at times, it has continued to burn without knowing each other and humanity has reached these days…
A little stroll in history…
The first sparks in the history of civilization, especially in the region referred to as Mesopotamia, BC After the years 4000, the wheel of the sumeres and especially the invention of the article begins to be seen. In the simplest of words, if this discovery had not been made, these lines would not be able to be written, and the thoughts would continue to be explained in the cave walls with primitive shapes.
In the processes that coincide with the same periods, the developments in astronomy and mathematics in Babylon, the emergence of calendars, the formation of time perception, the culture of measurement and the emergence of many concepts that still remain valid today Opening.
In addition to Mesopotamia in the east, the ancient works of Egyptian, Indian and Chinese civilizations are among the important sources of civilization, especially in these periods called prehistoric times.
For example, BC In the 3000 ‘s, Egyptian civilization, the Egyptians watched the sky, and thus had knowledge of direction determination, seasonal information, time pass calculation. They made the sun-based calendar We use today and celebrated the 5-day difference, which was divided into 12 months of 365 days, as a feast day.
The Greek Heradot, who lived in the 400 B.C., stated that ancient Egypt specializes in medicine. For example, some physicians were only working on the head or stomach, some of them worked on eyes and teeth, the institutions that gave medical education during this period (Per Ankh-Life house) were created.
They found a formula that knew the exact value of Pi for the first time by the construction of the pyramids and the Egyptian civilization, which progressed to the knowledge of mathematics and geometry by creating irrigation systems and controlling flood waters.
From east to west…
Bc. These values, which were laid out in the name of civilization in the 1000 ‘s, the Aegean Sea is shifting slightly to the west to enclose the East (Ionian) and West (Athens, Sparta, etc.), and in the ancient world such as Pythagoras (Ionian), Plato, Aristotle, Socrates (Athens) The important building blocks of today’s modern science continue to be revealed by many thinkers.
The famous thinkers of this era were not just thinkers. They also had a say in their important practices about the topics discussed in different areas of specialization today, such as mathematics, physics, economics and politics.
Plato founded the Platon School and revealed many important philosophers.
Plato’s Disciple, Aristotle, revealed the concept of experimentally, suggesting that it could be achieved through observations and inferences to universal realities. This concept was also the basis of the scientific method.
In 476, the Western civilisation torch continued to burn until the fall of western Rome. During this period, the Western, Renaissance and Reform movements and geographical discoveries will begin in 14. The Dark Age will live until the Century (http://tr.wikipedia.org).
This period will reach the highest level with the Inquisition courts in order to prevent and punish those who are insulted by the Church and religion (!) in the 13th century, which would lead to a period in which the pressure of the West would increase, and free thought would be limited.
The Civilization torch went to the east during this period.
From the west to the east again…
Especially in 610, the idea of “there is no compulsion in religion” emerged with Islam in Mecca, and many scientific studies were done in the light of free thought.
Technical sciences, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry in many areas such as the Muslim scientists, civilization and culture field in a short time to prove themselves to the whole world. Until that day, in the west, in Rome and the east, the science of civilizations such as China has been guided by the study, 7. 8. Have translated important resources in the centuries.
- Towards the end of the century, Abu Musa Câa bin Hayyan produced a wide range of experiments, producing various works that remained present in alchemy and science. He described laboratory techniques and methods of experimental chemistry in these works.
- In the century, the Be’ul Hikmet (Irfan Evi), founded by Caliph Mamunto Baghdad, has made its translation activities institutional. Plato’s important dialogues, works by Aristotle, Archimedes and Heron, and the works of physics and mechanics, etc. As such, many important works were translated into Arabic during this period (http://tr.wikipedia.org).
Intellectual mobilization and cultural mediation, which began with intensive translation activities, enabled the creation of rich libraries, mostly linked to mosques and madrasas. The rich library of Bayt al-ul Hikmet in Baghdad became the largest library after the library of Alexandria.
The most important contributions to scientific developments were in the fields of medicine, astronomy and optics. El-Razi’s Al-Hawi, the greatest physician and a deist of the period, is considered to be the most important medical book used by many scientists throughout the Middle Ages.
Another important medicine person was Ibn Sina, who grew up in Andalusia. The 14-volume Al-law, written by Ibn Sina, is one of the most famous monuments in medical history. Al-Harezmi from the Indian world began to use the number system and the use of 0 (zero) in this period, the Western world through Andalusia.
The idea that the world isin the centre of the planets ‘ orbits is 10. Century, Abu Jafar al-Hazen was opened to debate. Suspects 11. The century progressed and Ibn-I Heysem suggested that this planet model was not really in a book under the name of doubts against Ptoletizing. This criticism continued to be influenced by Copernicus.
After these periods coincided with the Emevi and Abbasid period, the ruler of the Ottoman Empire began to become an event. The 14th golden age of Islam and hence the east. It is thought to continue until the century. (http://tr.wikipedia.org/Matthew E. Falagas, Effie A. Zarkadoulia, George Samonis (2006). “Arab Science in the Golden Age (750 – 1258 C.E.) And today “, The FASEB Journal 20:1581-6 (English)
In this period, the east, the torch burned by the previous, and the world were more enlightened.
The development of civilization in a continuous cycle between different civilizations, dark and light periods are actually expressed relative to each other.
The fire of civilization rises again in the west…
In the later period, in the same cycle, especially Reform and Renaissance movements rekindled the long-awaited civilization torch in the west.
- In the second half of the century, there was an extraordinary breakthrough in the arts and sciences of the Italy peninsula. This movement, called Renaissance (Rebirth), has enabled the reformation of the bond between contemporary western Europe and classical ancient Europe. During this period, European scientists learned mathematics from the world of Islam.
With the development of Gutenberg’s printing press, the new techniques that emerged in art, poetry and architecture have spread knowledge, thus a drastic change has begun.
- In the century Europe, libertarian, rational and scientific findings were adopted instead of traditional and superstitious beliefs. French Descartes and German Leibniz are considered pioneers of this era. Newton and Copernicus have opened a new era in science with rational explanations brought to physical and astronomical phenomena, and Descartes and Kant have prepared the philosophical infrastructure of these scientific developments (http://tr.wikipedia.org).
The Scholastic vision (the narrow view of the church) was destroyed as a result of the Renaissance. Instead of positive (scientific) thought was dominated. This prepared the Reform movements.
The period we live in today; It has emerged in those days through the accumulation of continuous enlightenment in the East and west of ancient Egypt in Mesopatamya, where people who can think freely, question and dream. Thanks to the contributions of many scholars such as Kopernik, Galileo, Kepler, Paskal, Newton, Einstein, Hawking to the accumulation of this enlightenment journey, all these opportunities are at the disposal of mankind.
In keeping with the health area, communication tools, transportation vehicles to Nano Technology, many of our daily lives are the products of this unit…
Humanity has achieved all these developments by transferring the information it reaches at each stage. This transmission was often expressed in centuries. Because at that time, the distances between people in terms of both transport and communication were far from all…
In the globalized world, the separation of East and west, the differences in the country and language, the distances are eliminated, the free circulation of information, Internet opportunities are often limited only by our imagination.
Thanks to the communication tools, we can communicate very comfortably with an expert in the area we want and make a video call to reveal better in this area. In fact, at the same time, our colleagues in the different parts of the world together with our expert friends in our pajamas, and then we can work from where we stayed, we can continue without leaving our place.
Well, in the society we live in, in our country; What is the situation in Turkey?
Do you think we’re taking advantage of the possibilities of civilization?
Even though we use the name of consumption, do we have enough of this accumulation of humanity in terms of reproducing value?
When we think of science, the House of Civilization, with the possibilities we have, do we contribute enough?
Are we able to possess and support those who produce value as a society?
What are the social causes if we cannot make enough use of civilization or contribute enough to civilization?
While you’re thinking about it, let’s try to assess the answers to these questions in our next article.